Vitiligo is pigmentary loss disorder.
It can affect 0.5 -1% of the population and occurs in all skin races. India has the highest prevalence of Vitiligo in the world.
It can occur in childhood. There can be a genetic association with male and female patients equally affected.
Vitiligo patients have an increased risk of autoimmune diseases e.g. Diabetes, thyroid disorder, Vitamin B 12 deficiency, Lupus, Rheumatoid arthritis, and alopecia.
A Vitiligo like skin condition can be associated with Melanoma, immune check point drugs and in hematology patients.
Vitiligo is due to the loss or destruction of melanocytes or cells that produce pigment of melanin.
The melanin pigment determines skin color of the skin, hair, and eyes. If the melanin pigment cannot form or melanocyte numbers decrease, then the skin color becomes progressively lighter.
Vitiligo can affect any part of the body. It can present as a single patch, multiple patches even full skin involvement.
The severity of vitiligo differs from patient to patient.
Vitiligo is generally a clinical diagnosis and a biopsy is rarely suggested.
Treatment of Vitiligo is currently unsatisfactory, but it should be noted that a small population of patients can repigment.